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Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) and Excavator Boring Shields are used to install 48-96-in. and 100 - 168-in. OD jacking pipe. Both systems are interiorly controlled by an operator. The TBM’s hydraulic motors rotate the inner drum and the cutter head excavates while the soil is transported via conveyor and haul unit for disposal from the launch shaft. The Excavator Boring Shield system excavates soil with a backhoe excavator at the face of the bore and soil is removed in the same manner as with the TBMs. Alignment accuracy is achieved with a pipe laser in the launch shaft which projects a laser point on to the cutter face for the operator to monitor and make steering corrections as necessary. For extended length drives, the AZ100 Total Guidance System is used for tunnel navigation. The all-in-one Tunnel Boring System easily adapts to any jacking pipe with an appropriately sized TBM, yoke and skid section(s). A complete Tunnel Boring System comprises a TBM, pump unit, yoke, skid, haul unit, conveyor, pipe laser and often a bentonite and lubrication pump. An Excavator Boring Shield System contains a boring shield with excavator, conveyor, haul unit, power pack or pump unit, pipe laser and jacking frame.